Type 2 diabetes mellitus: diet and treatment, nutrition and symptoms of the disease

Unfortunately, a disease like type 2 diabetes affects more and more people every year. In terms of mortality, it ranks second, second only to oncology. The danger of such a disease is not only in constantly elevated glucose levels, but in the failure of almost all body functions.

The "sweet" disease is not treated, you can only minimize the risk of complications and avoid the insulin-dependent type of diabetes. To normalize sugar levels, endocrinologists primarily prescribe a low-carbohydrate diet and regular exercise therapy. It turns out that type 2 diabetes diet and nutritional therapy is the main and main treatment.

If with the help of diet therapy it is not possible to achieve the desired results, you should start taking hypoglycemic drugs. It is also necessary to monitor blood readings with a glucometer at home.

Causes and symptoms

unhealthy foods for type 2 diabetes

Diabetes refers to diseases of the endocrine system, when the level of sugar in the blood constantly rises. This is due to the decrease in the sensitivity of cells and tissues to the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas.

It is remarkable that the body produces this hormone in sufficient quantities, but the cells do not react with it. This condition is called insulin resistance.

There is no single and specific cause of type 2 diabetes, but doctors have identified risk factors, one of which is age 40. ED is often diagnosed at this age. But this does not mean that the disease has developed dramatically. Most likely, the patient simply ignored the symptoms of prediabetes for many years, thus exhausting the body.

Signs of SD:

  • thirst;
  • dry mouth?
  • slow healing of wounds and abrasions.
  • frequent urge to go to the toilet
  • rapid fatigue.
  • drowsiness.

If at least one of the symptoms occurs, it is recommended to visit an endocrinologist for analysis in order to rule out or confirm the presence of a condition. The diagnosis is quite simple - the supply of venous and capillary blood. If you know the symptoms and treatment will be effective.

Diabetes is more common in the following categories of people:

  1. age over 40?
  2. overweight by abdominal type.
  3. malnutrition, when light carbohydrates (sweets, flour products) dominate the diet.
  4. sedentary lifestyle without proper physical activity.
  5. high blood pressure?
  6. the presence of diabetes in the closest relatives.

When treating a "sweet" disease, it is necessary to strictly adhere to a diet aimed at reducing blood glucose.

diet therapy

doctor recommends fruit for type 2 diabetes

>A properly formulated therapeutic diet, combined with moderate physical activity, will become the main treatment for diabetes. One of the main rules is not to be hungry and not to overeat. The number of meals is six times a day. Last dinner at least a few hours before bedtime.

Type 2 diabetes Diet and nutritional therapy stabilize blood sugar levels. Up to half of the daily diet should be vegetables. Also, the daily menu should include cereals, fruits, meat or fish and dairy products.

A diabetic's body suffers from a lack of vitamins and minerals. This is due to a failure in the metabolic processes not only of the endocrine system. That's why it's so important to eat a balanced diet.

From the above, the main principles of the diet can be distinguished:

  • small meals, six times a day.
  • minimum fluid intake - two liters.
  • Don't starve and don't overeat.
  • dinner should be light, it is worth limiting yourself to a glass of fermented milk product or 150 grams of cottage cheese.
  • Fruits should be included in breakfast.
  • in the preparation of vegetable dishes, use only seasonal products.
  • choose products according to GI.

All diabetic foods should have a low glycemic index. Endocrinologists adhere to this index when prescribing diet therapy.

In addition to observing the principles of nutrition, we must not forget about the permitted heat treatment, which aims at the absence of bad cholesterol in the dishes.

Cooking is allowed in the following ways:

  1. boiling;
  2. for a couple;
  3. in the microwave;
  4. Bake in the oven;
  5. in a kitchenette?
  6. stew, using a small amount of vegetable oil.

It is necessary to study the concept of GI separately and learn for yourself how to formulate a diet based on personal taste preferences.

After all, the selection of products for diabetics is quite extensive and allows you to cook many healthy dishes.

GI products in diet therapy

foods for type 2 diabetes

The glycemic index is a measure that reflects the effect of a particular food on raising blood sugar levels after consumption. Products with a low glycemic index contain complex easily digestible carbohydrates, which are not only necessary for the patient, but also give him a feeling of satiety for a long time.

Diabetics should choose from those food categories that have a low GI. Foods with an average index can be in the diet only occasionally, no more than twice a week. Products with a high glycemic index can raise the glucose level to 4 mmol / l in a fairly short time.

The glycemic index of foods is divided into three categories. But in addition to this value, you should also pay attention to the caloric content of food. So, some foods have a value of zero units, but at the same time contain bad cholesterol and high calorie content.

A bright will take fat, which does not contain carbohydrates and has 0 units, but it is categorically contraindicated for diabetics. Department of Agriculture:

  • 0 - 50 units - low?
  • 50 - 69 units - medium.
  • over 70 points - high.

There is a special table of products with indexes to make it easier for the patient to create a menu for himself. Some products after heat treatment can significantly increase the index - these are beets and carrots. Raw is allowed, but boiled under prohibition.

The therapeutic diet allows you to cook dishes from such vegetables:

  1. onion;
  2. all varieties of cabbage - white and red, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, broccoli.
  3. garlic;
  4. eggplant;
  5. tomato;
  6. beans and asparagus;
  7. lentils?
  8. peas;
  9. squash;
  10. cucumber.
greens and vegetables for type 2 diabetes

Many people are used to having potatoes on their table. But with a "sweet" disease, it is better to refuse it because of the high GI. In very rare cases, when it is still decided to use the tubers, they should be pre-soaked in water overnight. Thus, you can get rid of starch and slightly reduce the index.

Vegetables for a diabetic are a source of vitamins, trace elements and fiber. They prepare not only fresh salads, but also side dishes, as well as complex dishes. It is allowed to vary the taste properties with greens - spinach, lettuce, oregano, basil, dill and parsley.

Fruits are an equally important component of the diet. The daily permissible value should not exceed 150 - 200 grams. Fruits, even with a low index, cannot be spilled. With this treatment, they lose fiber and glucose quickly enters the bloodstream.

When on a diet, the following fruits and berries are allowed:

  • cherry;
  • apricot;
  • pear;
  • nectarine;
  • persimmon;
  • black and red raisins;
  • all varieties of citrus fruits - orange, lemon, grapefruit, tangerine, pomelo and lime.
  • gooseberry;
  • sweet cherry;
  • peach.

There are many valuable substances in dried fruits, no more than 50 grams per day is allowed. Dried fruits are good to add to cereals, thus creating a complete meal. Low GI dried fruit - dried apricots, prunes and figs.

Meat, offal, fish and seafood are also a daily part of the menu. At the same time, fish should be present at least three times in the weekly diet. Choose lean meats and fish. The skin and fat residues are removed from them, in which there are no vitamins, but only bad cholesterol.

Endocrinologists recommend the following products:

  1. chicken;
  2. rabbit meat;
  3. Turkey;
  4. beef;
  5. quail;
  6. chicken liver?
  7. beef liver;
  8. beef tongue?
  9. beef lungs;

There are no restrictions on the choice of seafood. From the fish, you can choose round, cod, pike or perch.

Cereals are a source of energy, so they give a feeling of satiety for a long time. Some of them have a high GI, especially white rice. Its alternative will be brown (brown) rice, whose GI is 50 units. It takes a little longer to bake - about 45 minutes.

Barley is considered the most valuable cereal, its GI is only 22 units. Other types of cereals are also allowed:

  • barley?
  • buckwheat;
  • oatmeal;
  • wheat porridge.

By the way, the thicker the porridge, the lower its index.

There are few restrictions on dairy and sour milk. Everything is based on the fat content of the products. Therefore, it would be reasonable to refuse sour cream, margarine and butter.

Medical care

tablets for type 2 diabetes

If with the help of diet therapy it is not possible to achieve the desired results, the doctor is forced to prescribe hypoglycemic drugs. Their selection in the pharmaceutical market is extensive.

Self-medication is prohibited, as all pills have their own side effects. Only an endocrinologist can choose the right pills for the patient, taking into account the characteristics of his body and the course of the disease.

The purpose of hypoglycemic drugs is to stimulate the pancreatic cells to increase the production of the hormone insulin so that it is in the blood in the required amount.

If in this case it is not possible to normalize the blood glucose level, then the treatment includes various groups of hypoglycemic tablets.

Additional measures

exercises for type 2 diabetes

In the case of type 2 diabetes, treatment should include feasible physical activity. This serves as an excellent counter to high sugar levels.

That is, when you play sports in the body, all metabolic processes are accelerated and glucose is absorbed faster.

You should spend at least half an hour a day on this course. If you can't practice every day, then at least you need to walk in the fresh air for forty minutes.

You can choose the following types of physical activity for type 2 diabetics:

  • yoga;
  • Nordic walking?
  • sport walking;
  • jogging?
  • cycling?
  • swimming.

If a person wants to study at home, then on the Internet there are many video courses dedicated specifically to diabetics.

If the training is done outside the house and after them there is a feeling of hunger, then it is allowed to prepare an additional meal - snack. An ideal choice would be 50 grams of nuts, which contain nutritious protein, have a low glycemic index and perfectly fight appetite. Just do not exceed the permissible daily dose, because such a product is rich in calories.

From all of the above, it should be concluded that the manifestation of diabetes can be minimized using only two rules: follow the principles of diet therapy for diabetes and exercise regularly.