Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by metabolic disorders due to absolute or relative lack of insulin. The pancreas is the only organ, weighing 70-100 grams, located in the abdominal cavity at the arch of the duodenum. It plays a key role in the digestion of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. It also produces insulin, which regulates carbohydrate metabolism in the body. In this article we will talk about what the diet should include in diabetes.
Types of diabetes
Doctors distinguish between different types of diabetes, depending on the cause and course of the disease:Insulin-dependent type I diabetes
- type II diabetes, which usually occurs later in life, especially in obese patients.
Type I diabetes is usually the result of damage to the pancreas. That is, primary damage to beta cells (those that produce insulin in the pancreas) and complete insufficiency in insulin secretion.
The early signs of type I diabetes are intense thirst and hunger, unexplained weight loss, frequent urination of large amounts of urine, blurred vision, fatigue, chronic infections. In some cases, the onset is accompanied by convulsions, confusion, speech, loss of consciousness. Type I diabetes is considered an immune disease.
Type II diabetes is more common in obese people. The disease can be congenital or acquired and is characterized by decreased insulin secretion by the pancreas as well as insulin resistance. This means that even the right amount of insulin in the body is not able to complete the task.
The disease is accompanied by excessive thirst and heavy urination, slowly raising blood sugar levels. The patient feels weak and drowsy. The disease often begins in the middle-aged and elderly. In recent years, however, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of young people with type II diabetes. And an alarmingly large number of children and adolescents with this condition who are overweight and obese.
What is hyperglycemia
Hyperglycemia - blood glucose levels are above normal. Symptoms of hyperglycemia include excessive thirst, dry mouth, frequent urination, weight loss, and excessive daytime sleepiness.
The most common cause of hyperglycemia is diagnosed or poorly controlled diabetes. In people with diabetes, this condition can occur as a result of insufficient insulin.
Less commonly, hyperglycemia is the result of infectious and endocrine diseases (acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome). There is a high risk of delayed complications, especially in the cardiovascular system.
Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with dysfunction and dysfunction of various organs - eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels.
The right diet for diabetes
In the prevention of diabetes, diet is a very important part of treatment. It is essential to maintain proper blood glucose and lipid levels and optimal blood pressure. A well-chosen diet reduces the risk of developing complications of diabetes and minimizes the risk of developing vascular disease. An appropriate dietary pattern for diabetes plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of chronic complications of diabetes. Microvascular complications, retinopathy, kidney disease, diabetic neuropathy and more are included.
Consumption of diabetes is one of the main factors influencing the results of diabetes treatment.
Sugar is essential for life, but in this case it is better to remove the sugar bowl! In diabetes, the metabolism of mainly carbohydrates is reduced. People diagnosed with diabetes should limit their intake of sugar or carbohydrates.
- monosaccharides - glucose and fructose are found in fruits and honey. Sucrose disaccharide is the sugar from a sugar bowl.
- polysaccharides - flour products, cakes, cookies and bread, potatoes, bananas, noodles, pasta, pasta, pancakes and more.
Carbohydrates for diabetes
Carbohydrates are part of our diet. Their consumption should cover 55-60% of the total demand. Much depends on the form and structure of the origin of the carbohydrates. The carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract are digested and broken down into simple sugars - mainly glucose.
Note that excess carbohydrates cause the β-cells in the pancreas to constantly stimulate to produce and secrete insulin.
As blood sugar levels rise, our pancreas secretes insulin. Insulin is a hormone that allows glucose to enter cells. Simple sugar, like glucose, is quickly transported to cells in about an hour.
Unfortunately, insulin is a hormone that lasts for several hours and does not want to be "out of work". Thus, elevated insulin levels cause fluctuations in blood glucose levels and carbohydrate starvation.
A hungry person opens the fridge and starts eating to satisfy that feeling of hunger. The adrenal glands receive information: fluctuations in blood glucose. All of these reactions are signals to the adrenal glands to secrete adrenaline. This creates a vicious circle that leads to anxiety, depression and autonomic neurosis (neurosis).
Therefore, it is recommended that you reduce your carbohydrate intake to a minimum. In such a condition, there are no fluctuations in blood glucose levels and excessive production of the hormones insulin and adrenaline.
Glucose passes through the walls of the digestive tract and enters the bloodstream through various organs, where it is converted and becomes a source of energy. In the absence of adequate exercise, the need for energy is reduced, glucose is stored as glycogen in the muscles and liver.
When it is excessive, glycogen is converted to fat, which leads to fatty liver and further accumulation of excess body fat. The metabolic process of glucose is controlled by insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas.
Carbohydrates as the main energy material can enter the cell only with the help of insulin, which distributes simple sugar to the body. However, insulin deficiency, for example, causes an increase in blood sugar levels, followed by severe cellular metabolism. General Insulin Deficiency Leads to Diabetes in Children and Young People - Type I Diabetes.
Protein in diabetes
Protein should cover 10-15% of energy needs. A larger amount is required for children during the developmental period, for pregnant women. The most valuable animal protein is found in lean meats, cottage cheese, eggs and sour milk.
Because our body can produce 56 g of sugar per 100 g of protein, it is also important to limit our protein intake. In order not to harm the body, you should eat high quality proteins (yolks, carcasses by-products). Sources of vegetable protein are - soy, legumes, dark wholemeal bread.
Diet for diabetes and should not
In the diet for diabetes, the first stage of treatment should include foods such as egg yolk, butter, sour cream, milk and sugar-free vegetables.
At the moment, you should significantly reduce or eliminate from your diet: egg whites, lean meats, fish, poultry and nuts.
People with diabetes should not eat meals or foods high in protein at night. At night, the body can not use it. Because the pancreas does not release enough insulin, blood glucose levels rise in the morning. In this case, a dinner consisting mainly of carbohydrates and fats is recommended.
Fats contain the most energy. They can cover only 30% of the daily energy consumption. In addition, they contribute to the development of obesity.Spices such as cinnamon, garlic, cloves, turmeric and laurel lower blood cholesterol and glucose levels.
Can a diabetic eat fruits and vegetables? Yes, because it is a rich source of vitamins and minerals. Fresh vegetables, including broccoli, are ideal for diabetics as an excellent source of chromium. An onion that can work to release insulin. Peeled potatoes (boiled potatoes raise blood sugar very quickly), asparagus, raw carrots, fresh cucumbers, sauerkraut, bilberry leaves and stem tea and garlic.
Vegetables that you can eat without significant restrictions:
- fresh and pickled cucumbers?
- raw and sauerkraut?
An excellent anti-diabetic agent - fresh raspberry leaves, which are harvested before the fruit ripens. Cranberries can prevent diabetic retinopathy - Studies have shown significant improvements in vision in people with eye disease during diabetes. This disease leads to changes in the bottom, which significantly impedes blood flow to the eye.
Diabetics who are overweight (BMI over 25) are advised to limit their calorie intake to lose weight.
Food Glycemia Index
Blood glucose is affected not only by the amount of carbohydrates, but also by their type. Therefore, it is necessary to control the amount and quality of carbohydrates in the diet, but it is also desirable to calculate the glycemic index of the product.
Low GI foods are slow to digest and absorb, do not quickly raise blood glucose and do not stimulate insulin secretion. A low GI diet reduces the risk of insulin-dependent diabetes.
The higher the GI of a product, the higher the blood glucose level after consuming this product. Foods with high GI impulse such as blood glucose. The slow absorption and gradual increase and decrease of blood sugar after consuming foods with low GH helps control blood sugar in diabetics. It is best to eat foods that have a GI of less than 60.
The GI of food is significantly lower when consumed in its natural form, ie raw and unprocessed.
Diabetics are also advised to abstain from alcohol.